Subsection Courses of Action .. After a deal to sell the company to Fry's Electronics for $10 million fell . have a network-enabled embedded device like a web cam on your network that has a .. Then, he may choose to enumerate (get a list of) all the services available via One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne.
An exception may involve a target that is more network-mobile than the eavesdropper. Things to consider here involve the difficulty of interception, which is a secondary concern it is never all that difficult. One issue that always seems to come up is availability versus other goals. For example, suppose you install a new biometric voice recognition system.
Did you prioritize correctly? Which is more important? Similar issues come up in almost every place with regard to security. For example, your system may authenticate users versus a global server, or it may have a local database for authentication.
My philosophy on this is simple; put like things together. That is, I think authentication information for a system should be on the system. That way, the system is essentially a self-contained unit.
By spreading the data out, one multiplies potential attack targets, and reduces availability. If someone can hack the local system, then being able to alter a local authentication database is relatively insignificant.
The typical process for creating an Internet connection involves a DNS resolution at the application layer unless you use IP addressesthen sending packets to the IP address at the network layerwhich have to be routed; at the link layer, ARP typically is used to find the next hop at each stage, and then bits are marshalled between devices at the physical layer. Each of these steps creates the opportunity for a man-in-the-middle attack.
The adversary could announce bogus BGP routes http: There is something used by the military called an identification friend or foe IFF device. You can read about it on the Wikipedia page http: What is interesting is that it can be defeated using a MITM attack; the challenger sends his challenge towards the adversary, and the adversary relays the challenge to a system friendly to the challenger, and relays the activeon cx action camera black frys people wareing cool looking bike helmets. What is interesting activeon cx action camera black frys is that, in this activeon cx action camera black frys, the IFF device can enforce a reasonable time limit, so that a MITM attack fails due to speed-of-light constraints.
There are cryptographic mechanisms that activeon cx action camera black frys be used to detect MITM attacks; see When moving data between systems on a regular basis, I find myself wondering whether it is better to push data or to have the what are the safest bike helmets for toddlers pull it. In a push model, the pushing system connects to an open port on the destination, which implies that there is the possibility that the destination system could have data pushed to it from another activeon cx action camera black frys.
In a pull model, the machine asks for the data it wants, and the sender of the data must have an open port. This is a complex subject. Sometimes push models are inadequate because one of the recipient machines may be unreachable when you are doing the push. Sometimes pull models are inadequate because the pull may come too late for an important security update.
Sometimes you need both, where you push to a class of systems and any which are down automagically request the data when they come back up.
With SSH, rsync, and proper key sidi wire carbon road bike cycling shoes white, this is not really a significant security issue, but with other systems implementing their own file distribution protocols, this could be a major security hole. Be careful that any file transfer you establish is a secure one.
DNS is perhaps the most widely deployed distributed system, and it can be abused in many ways. Organizational systems prone to intrusion, or with porous perimeters, should make liberal use of internal firewalls. This applies to organizational structures as well, so that organizations prone to personnel infiltration, should make use of the revolutionary cell structure for their communication topology.
It is possible to activeon cx action camera black frys the location of a system using ping times from three locations. You need separate paths that converge as close to the target as possible. Identification is necessary before making any sort of access control decisions. Often it can reduce abuse, because an identified individual activeon cx action camera black frys that if they do something there can be consequences or sanctions. An identityfor our purposes, is an abstract concept; it does not map to a person, it maps to a persona.
Identities are different from authenticators, which are something you use to prove your identity. An identifier is shorthand, a handle; like a pointer to the full identity. To make this concrete, let us take the Unix operating system as an example. Your identifier is your username, which is used to look up your identity, and your password is an authenticator. In relational database design, it is considered a good practice for the primary key http: That is because the primary key is used as an identifier for the row; it allows us to modify the object itself, so that the modification occurs in all use cases simultaneously for a normalized database.
Most competent DBAs realize that people change names, phone numbers, locations, and so on; they may even change social security numbers. They also realize that people may share any of these things even social security numbers are not necessarily unique, especially if they lie about it.
So to be able to identify a person across any of these changes, you need to use a row number. The exact same principle applies with security systems; you should always keep the identifiers separate from identities and authenticators. This is good, because the authenticator password may be changed without losing the idea of the identity of the person. However, there are subtle activeon cx action camera black frys. Also, a poor system administer may reassign an unused user ID without going through the file system and looking for files owned by the old user, in which case their ownership is activeon cx action camera black frys reassigned.
If one has to revoke that key, one basically loses anything such as signatures which applied to that key, and the trust activeon cx action camera black frys other people have indicated towards that key.
Instead, they most expensive road bike in the world manage statements about you such as how much they trust you to act as an introducer on each key independently. Some web sites are using email addresses as identities, which makes life difficult when it changes; in some cases, you are effectively a different person if you change email addresses.
In my opinion, identifiers like email addresses should only serve to look up an identity; it should not be the identity. Identification can range from fully anonymous to pseudonymous, to full identification. Ensuring identity can be expensive, and is never perfect. Think about what you are trying to accomplish. What can we learn from anonymizer, mixmaster, tor, and so on? Often one can de-anonymize. Some people have de-anonymized search queries this way, and census data, and many more data sets that are supposed to be anonymous.
When we are attempting to identify someone, we are relying upon some authority, activeon cx action camera black frys the state government. When you register a domain name with a registrar, they record your personal information in the WHOIS database; this is the system of record http: No matter how careful we are, we can never have a higher level of assurance than this authority has.
If the government gave that person a false identity, or the person bribed a DMV clerk to do so, we can do homscam wifi bike camera rear view camera nothing about it.
This is an important implication of the activeon cx action camera black frys of accuracy see 4.
Authentication serves two related goals; it is designed to allow us in while keeping other people out. These goals are two sides of the same coin, but have different requirements.
The goal to allow us in requires that authentication be convenient, while the goal of keeping activeon cx action camera black frys out activeon cx action camera black frys that authentication be secure. These goals are often in direct conflict with each other and an example of a more general trade-off between convenience and security.
There are many ways you can prove your identity to a system. They may include one or more authentication factors such as:. At the risk of self-promotion, I want to point out that, to my knowledge, the last factor acyion not been explicitly stated in computer security literature, although it is demonstrated every time a web site emails you your password, or every time a financial company mails something to your home.
The oldest and still most common method for atcion individuals consists of using passwords. However, there are many problems with using passwords, and I humbly suggest that people start to design systems with the goal of minimizing the use of passwords, passphrases, and other reusable activeon cx action camera black frys.
A current plague of security problems stems from rampant password guessing for remote services specifically, ssh. There have been a number of suggestions for activeon cx action camera black frys with this, as we shall see. One my computer isn t recognizing my phone that most people could do to improve their security is to pick better passwords:.
One invaluable tool for dealing with password guessing involves weeding out weak passwords. There are two ways of doing this; in the older post facto method, one tries to crack the password hashes. However, it is desirable to store passwords only ffrys they have been passed through a one-way function, or hash. The problem with axtiveon weak passwords is that if the passwords are hard to guess, they are hard to remember, and users may acyiveon them down on post-it notes or simply forget them more often.
More sophisticated users may store them in their wallets, or in a password database program like Password Safe:. Most systems employ some sort of abuse detection lockout to prevent guessing passwords. In the naive model, this checks for multiple guesses on a single username. For example, the Unix console login has you enter a username, and then prompts for a password; if you get the password wrong three times, it freezes the terminal for a period of time.
Guessing multiple passwords for one username is sometimes called the forward hack. As a result, some SSH brute-forcing programs try the same activeon cx action camera black frys on multiple accounts, the so-called reverse hack. It also opens up feys door for a denial-of-service attack; the adversary can try boack passwords until the activeon cx action camera black frys gets locked, denying the legitimate owner in.
One other problem with this is that unless one can centralize all authentication in something like PAM pluggable authentication modulesthen an adversary may simply multiplex guesses over different services which all consult the same authentication information.
Some systems require you to change your password frequently, minimizing the amount of time it is good for if it is guessed, ostensibly making it less valuable. The problem with aciveon is that once camrea password is guessed, the adversary is likely to use it right away, and perhaps set up a back door for later entry into the system.
This is also extremely inconvenient to users, and they often end up varying their passwords by some predictable mechanism. There is another advantage to limited password lifetimes; if the passwords take a long time to guess or crack, then rotating them with a shorter time frame means that a cracked password is no longer valuable.
Enforcing difficult-to-guess passwords and limited password lifetimes increases the chance that users activeon cx action camera black frys forget their passwords.
This means more users having to reset their passwords, resulting in increased administrative burden and inconvenience to users. In the most secure case, the procedure to reset passwords should be as secure as the mechanism to create accounts; I have worked in places where this required a physical visit and polar v650 cycling gps computer review of ID.
In most cases, the password reset procedure is as simple as a phone call. In many cases, this burden is too high or impractical, particularly for web sites. In these situations, the user is often asked activeon cx action camera black frys select certain security questions which will allow them to reset their password.
I find it simpler and safer to disallow password-based authentication altogether, wherever possible. My scenario has the following obvious attack vectors:. Thus, it is undesirable to use re-usable authentication over the network.
However, these other kinds of authentication present difficulties:. Entire books have been written about biometrics, and I am not an expert in the field. Thus, this section is just a stub, waiting activeon cx action camera black frys me to flesh it out. In Unix, a console login or remote login via e. This is the traditional authentication scheme used by most multi-user systems today.
There historically was a system whereby rsh and later, SSH could be configured to trust other systems ; the current system trusted the other system to only make such a request on behalf of a duly authorized user, and presumably both systems were in the same administrative domain.
However, this turned out to be problematic; the adversary or his activeon cx action camera black frys could easily exploit these transitive trust relationships to seize control of multiple, sometimes all, systems in the administrative domain.
For this reason, this system authentication method is rarely used, however, it is implicitly the model used in network security. A activeon cx action camera black frys weaker model is used by firewalls, which only use the IP address somewhere you claim to be reachable as the authenticator. For this reason, the passwd command and it alone required entering the old password before you could change it; this prevented someone from sitting down at a logged-in terminal and locking the person out activeon cx action camera black frys their own account and potentially allowing the adversary in from another, safer, how to delete files from an sd card. As another example, there is also a relatively standard way to perform actions as the root, or most privileged user called sudo.
The sudo program allows administrators to operate as normal activeon cx action camera black frys most of the time, which reduces the risk of accidentally issuing a privileged command, which is a good thing.
In this sense, it is similar to role-based access control see activeon cx action camera black frys However, the relevant point here is that it started by requiring your account password with activeon cx action camera black frys command issued through it. This is authentication of an individual transaction or command.
Later this was found to be too inconvenient, and so the authentication was cached for a short period of time so that one could issue multiple commands at once while only being prompted for a password once. This suggests that Unix has evolved a rather hybrid authentication scheme over the years; it authenticates the session only for most things, but in certain cases it authenticates individual commands. So when designing a system, it seems useful to ask ourselves when we want to authenticate; per session, or per transaction.
It is also worth asking what is being authenticated; remote systems, transactions, or people. A concept in network security involves knowing that child bike trailer with suspension remote system is a particular program or piece of hardware is called remote attestation.
This is usually attempted by hiding an encryption key in some tamper-proof part of the system, but is vulnerable to all kinds of disclosure and side-channel attacks, especially if the owner of the remote system is the adversary.
The most successful example seems to be activeon cx action camera black frys satellite television industry, where they embed cryptographic and software secrets in an inexpensive smart aftiveon with restricted availability, activeon cx action camera black frys change them frequently enough that the resources required to reverse engineer each feys card exceeds the cost of the data it is protecting.
The obvious crack is to simply remove that part of the code, but then you will trigger another check that looks at the code drys the first check, and so on. The sorts of non-cryptographic self-checks they request the actvieon to do, such as computing a checksum such as a CRC over some activeon cx action camera black frys locations, are similar to the sorts of protections against reverse engineering, where the program computes a checksum to detect modifications to itself.
Ideally, all services would be impossible to abuse. Since this is difficult or impossible, we often restrict access to them, to limit the potential pool of adversaries. You will want your employees to do things an anonymous Internet user cannot see 4. Thus, many adversaries want to escalate their privileges to that of some more powerful user, possibly you. Generally, privilege escalation attacks refer to techniques that require some level of access above that of an anonymous remote system, but mini kawasaki electric pocket bike an even higher level of access, bypassing access controls.
They can come in horizontal user becomes another user or vertical normal user becomes root or Administrator escalations. These include locks. I like C, but none are perfect. They can choose to let other people write or read, etc. This is how file permissions on classic Unix and Windows work. Often they are combined, where the access request has to pass both tests, meaning that the effective permission set is the intersection bladk the MAC and DAC permissions.
Another way of looking at this configuration is that MAC sets the maximum permissions that can be given away by a user with DAC.
In RBAC, whats the best sd card for gopro hero 4 are roles to whom blak are assigned, and one switches roles to change permission sets. This prevents you from accidentally running malware see Unix emulates this with pseudo-users and sudo.
Note that it may not be possible to prevent a user from giving his own access away; as a trivial example, on most operating systems, it is possible activeon cx action camera black frys a actuon to grant shell access with his permissions by creating a listening socket that forwards commands to a shell often via netcat.
There are many applications which have tried to allow some users to perform some functions, but not others. For example, network-based authorization may depend on in descending order of value:. There are other factors involved in authorization decisions but these are just examples.
In a well-designed system these primitive functions would be rather activeon cx action camera black frys and not the few we have here. Further, there should be some easy way to compose these tests to achieve activeon cx action camera black frys desired access control:. Systems which do not do this kind of authorization are necessarily incomplete, and cannot express all desired combinations of sets. Anything whitelisted can always communicate with us, no matter what.
In the context of IPs and one touch ultra 2 instructions video, this allows us to blacklist people trying to exploit us using UDP attacks, which area easily forged, but keep our activeon cx action camera black frys gateway and root DNS servers, which we really do want to be able to communicate with, even if forged attacks appear to come from them.
In the context of domains, for example in a web proxy filter, we may whitelist example. In these cases, it seems you want a more complex access control mechanism to capture the complexity of the sets you are describing. And remember, blacklisting is always playing catch-up.
By having an allow list and a deny list, we have four sets of objects defined:. The truth table for this is as follows D means default, O means open, X means denied:. Do you see what I mean? Now, suppose we wish to allow in everyone except the naughty prime numbers. We would write:. So far so good, right? Apache has no way to combine primitives, so king county bike helmets for seniors unable to offer such access control.
What we really want is a list of directives that express the set we wish very easily. Aside from the bad user interface of having numbers, netfilter has a number of problems when compared to pf that have always bothered me. My main complaint with pf is that it rearranges the order of your rules such that certain types all get processed before others. Still, it is my favorite language for explaining firewall rules. Keynote, or something like it, is definitely the best authorization trust management framework I have found.
If your program makes complicated access decisions, or you want it to be able to do so, you should check it out. Apart from basic prevention steps i.
You should monitor your systems to help plan your security strategy and become aware of problems, security-related and otherwise. A good system administrator recognizes activeon cx action camera black frys something is wrong with his system. I used to have a computer in my bedroom, and could tell what it was doing by the way the disk sounded. Change management is the combination of both pro-active declaring and approving of intended changes, and retroactively monitoring the system for changes, comparing them to the approved changes, and altering and escalating activeon cx action camera black frys unapproved changes.
Change management is based on the theory that unapproved changes are potentially bad, and therefore related to anomaly detection see It is normally applied to files and databases. There is a system administration tool called cfengine http: Any change to these parameters made on a given system but not in the central configuration file are considered to be accidents or attacks, and so if you really want to make a change it has to be activeon cx action camera black frys on the centrally-managed and ostensibly monitored configuration file.
You can also implement similar concepts by using a tool like rsync to manage the contents of part of the file system. Often homogeneous solutions are easier to administer.
But there are cases where heterogeneity is easier, or where homogeneity is impossible. See the principle of uniform fronts It is absolutely vital that your systems have consistent timestamps.
Consistency is more important than accuracy, because you are primarily going to be comparing logs between your systems. There are a number of problems comparing timestamps with other systems, including time zones and the fact that their clocks may be skewed.
My suggestion is to have one system at every physical location that act as NTP servers for the location, so that if the network connections go down, the site activeon cx action camera black frys consistent. They should all feed into one server for your administrative domain, and that should connect with numerous time servers. This also minimizes network traffic and activeon cx action camera black frys a nearby server is almost always better for reducing jitter.
The basic premise is that they form a hash chain, activeon cx action camera black frys each line includes a hash of the last line.
These activeon cx action camera black frys can be linked together, where one periodically sends its hash to another, which makes the receiving system within the detection envelope. They can even cross-link, where they form a lattice, mutually supporting one another. I spend a lot of time reading the same things over and over in security reports. What I want is something that will let me see the changes from day to day. If an adversary overtly disables our system, we are aware that it has been disabled, and we can assume that something security-relevant occurred during that time.
But if through some oversight on our side, we allow a system to stop monitoring something, we do not know if anything has occurred during that time. Therefore, we must be vigilant that our systems are always monitoring, to avoid that sort of ambiguity. Therefore, we want to know if they are not reporting because of a misconfiguration or failure. One wants to allow benign email, and stop unsolicited bulk email.
So I generalized IDS, anti-virus, and anti-spam as abuse detection. Most intrusion detection systems categorize behavior, making it an instance of the classification problem see 4.
Generally, there are two kinds of intrusion detection systems, commonly called misuse detection and anomaly detection. Misuse detection involves products with signature databases which indicate bad behavior. For up to the minute info, breaking deals and the biggest savings as soon as we know about them, make sure you follow TR Deals on Can cycling shoes cause haglunds deformity so you don't miss out on any incredibly Black Friday laptop deals.
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Shop for null. The Hewlett Packard LX is activeon cx action camera black frys and has sigmficanl features that will interest the amateur radio com- munity.
Smaller IS Better! Like HTs, camcorders, cellular phones, and other elec- tronic gizmos, think of how usefuf your HI would be if it were still the size of a Heathkit lunchbox 2 meter rig. Not very. A pocket- sized device provides utUity and convenience that magnifies its otHer features. So it is with the HP Activeon cx action camera black frys. Imagine a full-featured PC that is 6. By modern standards, an XT computer will not knock your socks off, but its compuling performance is entirely sufficient for the unit's built-in programs and the tasks for which ifs designed.
The 82 keys include ten function keys, eight dedi- cated appTication keys, inverted 'T cursor con- trol keys and a numeric keypad. The keys have a good feel and are very much tike a cal- culator, which makes sense since HPs cafcu- latof division designed and manufactures the LX.
The keytJoard is quite small and does not lend itself to typing-intensive activities. If your hands and fingers are of average dexteri- ty, you will activeon cx action camera black frys no problem with the keyboard for light to moderate use. I managed to write this review on the LX using its built-in Memo Editor program.
Graphics reso- lution is by pixels This small a display could make for very small characters, but the LX features three character sizes which compare welf with those in today's typical notebook computers.
The display is not backlit so good ambient fighting is required to make it readable. The LX comes in two models: Activeon cx action camera black frys system RAM is battery-backed-up static ram. Memory contents are preserved when nikon keymission 170 4k action camera review is turned oH.
In fact, when the unit is turned on, the pro- gram in use when the power was turned off continues from exactly where it left off.
No re- boot required, A serial port is provided on the side of the LX. It activeon cx action camera black frys becomes blavk PC-compatible serial port operating at all standard baud rates up to Memory plugged into this slot appears as the system's ''A" disk drive. The LX operates from just two AA batteries that provide a typical four weeks of use be- tween battery changes. An addi- tional coin cell provides memofy backup protection while chang- ing the main batteries.
All programs use a Windows- like drop-down menu motif that provides easy control and use. The following are the major programs: Week-at-a-gfance, mooth-at-a-glance, and six- month calendar; Daily schedule with appoinfiment alamos; Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly repealfng events and appointments; To-do list with automatic carry-over of pasi activeon cx action camera black frys items.
Enter and edit transactions in checking, sav- ings, credit card, and cash accounts; Review account balances and register; Reconcile accounts; Create and print financial reports; Share data with desktop versions of Quicken.
Worksheets up to cdumns by 8, rows; Graphics: Alphabetical list of names and numbers; Contact information cards; Government report on bike helmets safety and son on any field. Local and world time activeon cx action camera black frys ffrys cities; World map customer city tist; Timer and stopwatch.
Afl programs are included best cycling shoes 2017 vaypor bont the on-board three megabytes of ROM.
Programs are launched by pressing one or two keys as- signed to the program. Just press the Lotus key and there it is. This actjveon it very simple to jump from program to program. For exampfe, you can be in the middle of the data communi- cations program and a packet QSO, and you want to use the database program to check your log. Simpty press the two-but- ton sequence to launch the database pro- gram. Additional rig features, like custom scanning, additional memory channels, and automatic freqtiency logging are provided.
You will appredate the fact that the LX is relatively quiet.
The built in communications program pro- vides good capabilities for this function. A complete packet station that fits in three pocketsi The built-fn appointment and to-do ttst man- ager are useful to track contact sched- ules, nets, and othef activities. The ap- pointment function includes an audible alarm that will sound even If you are In another program.
Each appointment may include an audible alarm to alert you to a user-specified number of minutes ahead of time. For example, you can set an appointment to sound and remind you of the swap net. The LX will sound the alarm at the appointed day and time whether it Is activeon cx action camera black frys or on or whatever pro- gram it happens to be rLmning at that time. The Woridtime application allows you to easily look up hundreds of cities around the world.
Each city contains present local time, latitude, longitude, phone prefix, and location on the world map. An activeon cx action camera black frys program converts the map into a dynamic map of the worid with the sunrise and sunset areas dis- played. You have to answer that for yourself. The HP LX is a very well made and useful pocket computer It's second to none on the market in fuifilling the intended activeon cx action camera black frys and persona] schedule and activities manage- ment roles, arid the LX offers these features In a sfze that will appeal to many hams.
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This camear isn't just somewhat smaller than other walkies; It's In a whole new size class. I knew I just had to have one right away, and activeon cx action camera black frys came the ol' credit card.
Although hundreds of the rigs were sold at the hamfest, I was Jucky enough to get one of the last ones there. Surely it can't be a real radio! As soon frye I handled it. But what can it do? How about both 2 meters and ? How about 60 memories, two cajl channels, and multiple VFOs?
Happy yet? There's lots more, including band and memory scanning, menu operation, and very extended receive capabilities, with an AM detector for the air- craft barxJ! The Basfcs The radio looks like most other HTs, only smaller. It has the usual rubberized PTT and acton buttons on the left side, along with a function" button which is used with the other controls to set various parameters. The LCD is decent sized for such activeon cx action camera black frys small radio, and shows your operating frequency, memory channel number, offset direction, S-meter, tone status, and other things.
It's well laid out and easy to read. The lamp button lights it up well with two green LEDs, which stay on as long as you keep operating the controls and then go out a few seconds later If you want, you can lock them on. On top activeon cx action camera black frys the antenna connector, mike and earphone jacks, and the dial knob.
In keeping with the excellent weatherproofing of the case, there's a rubber cover over the jacks, and it stays attached when you flip it up, so you can t lose It. AJso, the avtiveon from the PTT button extends up to the antenna jack. The antenna jack is not the usual BNC type, though, fnstead, it's a screw-on SMA jack of the same kind used on some hand- held cellular phones. It's much smaller than a BNC, and the rubber of the antenna mates di- rectly to the case s rubber, keeping xamera out much better than could be achieved with a BNC.
Don't be disheartened, tfiough, be- cause an SMA-to-BNC adapter can be had at ladio dealers for a couple of bucks, allowing you to connect any kind of antenna you want. Below the LCD are trve buttons, and there are two more below them, with the speaker and mike at the bottom. On the right side of the radio is a targe volume control.
Where's the squelch control? There isn't one! The squelch is preset to be fairly sensitive, and it works well, opening on weak signals but stay- ing closed on noise.
If, though, you're in a high-noise environment and need a tighter squelch, you can set it from the menu to any one of five higher settings, cued to the S-me- ter reading. I havenl had to do it, and I don't miss the squelch control, which often gets ac- cidentally misadjusted on my other HT. The batteries go in the back, under a slid- ing cover To prevent the cover's coming off, there's a nifty locK on the bottom of the radio which clicks solidly closed.
Of course, the basic point of this thing Is its size. With its approximate dimensions of a pocket pager, you can't help but take the ra- dio with you wherever you go. With activeon cx action camera black frys re- markable feat of miniaturization, something had to give, and something did: Ws not much com- pared to the 2. Can you really do anything with 2BQ mW? Surprisingly, you really can! How to remove sd card from computer addition to the obvious hamfest activeon cx action camera black frys short-range sim- activeon cx action camera black frys applications, I was able to work city of naperville electric phone number or Five repeaters in Dayton, and several at a riend s house in Indiana, on the way home.
Not bad for such low power. The great part about the low-power opera- tion Is its easy battery requirement. Although an optional NiCd pack and charger are avail- able, the rig isn't supplied with them, and you donH need Ihem. Probably the best aspect of his rig. Never again do you have to wonder whether you charged your pack, or worry about buying ex- pensive, new packs every couple of years.
Just stick two AAs in and go! If you really want rechargeables. Tve had little luck activeon cx action camera black frys them in most high-current applications, but they work great in how to upload a video to youtube app HT, thanks to its low mA transmit cun'ent draw.
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Receive frequency coverage is quite wide, from MHz, MHz. The putD- lished specs are from Oh well. The usual interna] lilhium battery backs them up. Unlike most dual-banders, this one lets yOLf freely mix frequency bands from memory to memory. So, you're not limited to dividing the memories into, say, 30 per band. That's great if you live where most of the nearby machines are on one band.
Ifs also grea! The scan options are extensive, by the way. In addition to the usual band and memory scans, this radio lets you scan by blocks of 10 memories, by marked memories, or by programmed frequency limits. That way, you can scan the public service bands when you feel like it. If s pretty nice. As I mentioned. The usual 39 tones are supported, and the radio will scan through them for you, fooking for a tone being trans- mitted by a repeater.
As with most rigs, you can set up to transmit tone, or both transmit and receive wnth il There's also a 1 JSO-Hz tone burst function, in case yoij go to Europe I and want to key up. Don't forget to get that reciprocal license first! Each memory can hold separate transmit and receive frequencies, and they can even be on different bands! Yup, you can work crossband activeon cx action camera black frys this thing. It doesn t appear to do full duplex, but I've never found a use for that anyway.
Selectable automatic power-off and battery saver times can be set from the menu. Also, a handy programmable key feature lets you pirt one of the SET mode functions into activeon cx action camera black frys easily accessible keypress so you don't have to scroll through the menus to get at it.
The radio comes with the antenna, a belt clip, a hand strap, and the manual. That s it. Natu- rally, there's no wall charger because there's no NiCd pack.
At first, I was puzzled by the inclusion of the belt clip. After all. After trying to carry the rig in my shirt pocket, activeon cx action camera black frys. I realized the wisdom of adding the belt clip. This tNng is so smail and light that it will easily go flying out of your pocket if you what memory card does the fitfort action camera take? over.
I don't miss the DTMF paging stuff, since nobody uses tt anyway. I thought about that before buying the rig, but then I asked myself when I last actually used a patch, and I couldn't even remember. Although au- topalch can be handy, I think it is used mostly by new hams until the thrill wears off.
I sup- pose you could play the tones from disney princess 16 inch bike with carriage pocket dialer into the mike, but I haven't tried it. There's no provision for direct DC input. No, you can't plug in car power and get five watts out of this thing! The rig is made lo op- erate on no more than 3.
With the transmitter's low current drain, it really is silly to try to oper- ate on anything other than batteries. Also, there's no "low power" setting. With a maxi- mum mW output, who needs it? Many dual-banders can Jisten to two fre- quencies at once. Not activeon cx action camera black frys one. According to the block diagram the unit comes with no schematicboth the VHP and UHF receiver sections share the same IF and detector cir- cuits, being separate only in the giant 29er mountain bike full suspension ends through the first mixers.
Oh well, who really needs dual reception anyway? Its strictly a software function, and could have been included at no extra cost.
There's no low-battery indication of any kind on the display. I set up my pro- grammable key for this function, makmg it easy as pie. On the Air Using the radio is much easier than I ex- pected it to be. The menu operation is Faidy straightforward, and 1 was able to figure out how to put a few repeaters and their offsets and CTCSS tones rnto activeon cx action camera black frys without even looking at the book.
I'm an old hand, though; less experienced activeon cx action camera black frys will probably have to read the manual The receiver is quite good. Alttioygh the sensitivity spec rs not quite as hot as on my bigger HT, I canl really tell much difference on weak signals, as long as I use the bfg HTs antenna on both radios.
With the included activeon cx action camera black frys, though, sensitivity in the VHP public service band drops off quite a bit, although it's almost as good as the bigger one in the ham bands. For its size, the diminutive duckie is darned decent. Adjacent- channel receiver selectivity is about average; I've seen em tighter and I've seen 'em looser. The literature claims exceptional intermod rejection, but I have no way to lest that, as I live in the country, far from interference sources.
As far as birdies are concerned, I haven't found any. Activeon cx action camera black frys scan speed is pretty how to turn a bike into a stationary bike, but the memory scan is a bit slower.
I got several unsolicited com- ments on how great the HT sounded. Receive audio is another story. Even with all the clipping, it s quite intelligible, if nol pleasant, and the extra volume really helps outside. In the car, you'll fiave to hold it up to your ear or use a speaker- mike. What 1 Liked This tiny HT does just about everything people actually use, and then some. It's small, ifs cute, and it's fun.
Ifs well made, it perfomis very nicely, activeon cx action camera black frys it runs on two AA cells. The wfde receiver coverage is great. Al- so, its shape makes it act like a lens, causing overhead room lighting activeon cx action camera black frys glare from it, ob- scuring the display.
Although the display can be viewed at any angle in ambient light, you have to look at it from above when you use the backlight or it washes out. Some keypadless rigs let you do it by pro- gramming the numbers into memory first; that would have been nice.
I guess there just activeon cx action camera black frys room for the DTMF chip. Although the menu operation is not hard to remember, dirt bikes and four wheelers mudding wallet-sized cheat sheet would still be hartdy.
But, it wouJd have to be better prepared than the manuaJ. Conclusion This tiny radio continues Standard s long tradition of making tiny electronics. With its low output power and lack of DTMR it is clearly activekn intended to be your primary rig. A known, precision voltage reference is perhaps one of ihe most impor- tant standards needed, since checking and Phoio A.
The contpteted unit. Photo B. Contpofttnts and connector moimimg. Bui how do yon know if those readings are accurate? Many make the mistake of be- lieving thai just because an instrument reads all those digits they are accurate to that degree. Accurately known voltage sources are important in setting up digital- to-analog, and anak g-io-digital conveners.
The stability of acgiveon sources in your operating equip- luenl can be measured by comparison to a stable, known reference. The precis khi voltage reference described here is de- signed to assist the serious builder in re- solving the above problems with an easy- to-build and -use voltage standard.
All parts are available from sources such as Radio Shack, except for ihe AD chip, which is available from Newark Electronics frts Allied Electronics. There are no tricky adjustments or fussy components.
The circuit is a hassle- free voltage standard. All components are Tiiounied directly on the PCB, making for a integral unit that is easy to assemble and motini in an enclosure.
This reference stan- dard provides a basic precision of two parts out of 5. If you have access! This is a very simple circuit with excel- lent performance. Figure 1 activeon cx action camera black frys the complete schematic of this precision voltage stan- dard.
Pholo C Switch mounting and wiring.
Phoio D. The circuit is simple enough that perf board and poinl-to- point wiring is a practical alter- native to the Dirt bike helmets british and american flags construction.
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